EMEND Publications

Publication Themes

Arthropod Diversity

Pinzon, Jaime, John R. Spence and David W. Langor. 2013. Diversity, richness and abundance patterns of spider assemblages in white spruce stands. The Canadian Entomologist, 145(1):61-76.

Pinzon, Jaime, John R. Spence and David W. Langor. 2013. Effects of prescribed burning and harvesting on ground-dwelling spiders in the Canadian boreal mixedwood forest. Biodivers Conserv (2013) 22: 1513-1536.

Pinzon, Jaime and John Spence. 2013. Spider responses to variable retention harvesting: Biodiversity lessons learned from the EMEND project. EMEND Insights #3. Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada..

Esther W. Kamunya. 2012. Conservation of boreal moth communities in the mixedwood boreal forests of northwestern Alberta: Impacts of green tree retention and slash-burning. University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources.

Marla Schwarzfeld and Felix Sperling. 2012. EMEND Insights #2 - Gatekeepers of the forest: the ichneumonids of EMEND. EMEND Insights - Department of Renewable Resources - Univeristy of Alberta.

Pinzon, Jaime, John R. Spence and David W. Langor. 2012. Responses of ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae) to variable retention harvesting practices in the boreal forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 266: 42-53.

Pinzon, Jaime. 2011. Composition and structure of spider assemblages in layers of the mixedwood boreal forest after variable retention harvest. PhD Dissertation. Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, pp. 613..

Chris J. Pengelly, Ralph V. Cartar. 2011. Effect of boreal forest logging on nectar production of four understory herbs.. Forest Ecology and Management 261(11) 2068-2074.

Bourassa, Stéphane and Charlene M. Wood. 2011. First Record of Diacheila Arctica Amoena (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Alberta, Canada.. Coleopterists Bulletin, 65(2):144-145..

J. A. Colin Bergeron, John R. Spence, W. Jan. A. Volney. 2011. Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae). ZooKeys 147: 577-600.

Jenna M. Jacobs, J. A. Colin Bergeron, Timothy T. Work, John R. Spence. 2011. Low intensity surface fire instigates movement by adults of Calosoma frigidum (Coleoptera, Carabidae). ZooKeys 147: 641-649.

Pinzon, Jaime, John R. Spence and David W. Langor. 2011. Spider assemblages in the overstory, understory, and ground layers of managed stands in the western boreal mixedwood forest of Canada. Environmental Entomology 40(4): 797-808; DOI: 10.1603/EN11081.

Pinzon, Jaime and John R. Spence. 2010. Bark-dwelling spider assemblages (Araneae) in the boreal forest: dominance, diversity, composition and life-histories. Journal of Insect Conservation, 14:439-458.

Chris J. Pengelly, Ralph V. Cartar. 2010. Effects of variable retention logging in the boreal forest on the bumble bee-influenced pollination community, evaluated 8–9 years post-logging. Forest Ecology and Management 260(6):994-1002.

Work, Timothy T., Johua M. Jacobs, John R. Spence and W. Jan Volney. 2010. High levels of green-tree retention are required to preserve ground beetle biodiversity in boreal mixedwood forests. Ecological Applications, 20(3), 2010, pp. 741–751.

Matthew Pyper, John Spence and David Langor. 2010. How retention patches influence biodiversity in cutblocks. Sustainable Forest Management Network Research Note Series No. 74.

Irma Diaz-Aguilar and Zsolt Ujvari. 2010. New zerconid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata: Zerconidae) from Canada, with a review of the genus Mixozercon Halašková, 1963. Zootaxa 2555: 1–29.

Jacobs, Josh and David Langor. 2009. Deadwood-associated insect biodiversity in mixedwood forests. Sustainable Forest Management Network Research Note Series No. 42.

Work, Timothy T.. 2009. Responses of arthropod biodiversity to variable green-tree retention at the EMEND experiment. Sustainable Forest Management Network Research Note Series No. 43.

Spence, John R; David W Langor; Joshua M Jacobs; Timothy T Work; W Jan A Volney. 2008. Conservation of forest-dwelling arthropod species: simultaneous management of many small and heterogeneous risks. Spence, John R; David W Langor; Joshua M Jacobs; Timothy T Work; W Jan A Volney. 2008. Conservation of forest-dwelling arthropod species: simultaneous management of many small and heterogeneous risks. Canadian Journal of Entomology 140: 510-525.

Buddle, Christopher and David Shorthouse. 2008. Effects of experimental harvesting on spider (Araneae) assemblages in boreal deciduous forests. Canadian Entomologist 140: 437-452.

Work, Timothy T, Matti Koivula, Jan Klimaszewski, David Langor, John Spence, Jon Sweeny, Christian Hebert. 2008. Evaluation of carabid beetles as indicators of forest change in Canada. Canadian Journal of Entomology 140: 393-414.

Pinzon, Jaime and John R. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36:280-286.

Langor, D.W., H.E.J. Hammond, J.R. Spence, J. Jacobs, T. Cobb. 2008. Saproxylic insect assemblages in Canadian forests: diversity, ecology, and conservation. Canadian Entomologist 140: 453-474.

Park, J., Reid, M.L.. 2007. Distribution of a bark beetle, Trypodendron lineatum, in a harvested landscape. Forest Ecology and Management 242: 236?242.

Jacobs, Joshua M., John R. Spence and David W. Langor. 2007. Influence of boreal forest succession and dead wood qualities on saproxylic beetles. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 9, 3-16.

Jacobs, Joshua, M., John R. Spence, and David W. Langor. 2007. Variable retention harvest of white spruce stands and saproxylic beetle assemblages. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37(9): 1631?1642.

Langor, David W., John R. Spence, H.E. James Hammond, Joshua Jacobs, and Tyler P. Cobb. 2006. Maintaining saproxylic insects in Canada's extensively managed boreal forests: a review. Grove, Simon J.; Hanula, James L., eds. 2006. Insect biodiversity and dead wood: proceedings of a symposium for the 22nd International Congress of Entomology. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-93. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 109 p..

Wesley, Julia, D.J.M. Williams, D.W. Langor, and J.R. Spence. 2006. Spruce beetle (Coleopetera: Scolytidae) parasitoids: cephalic morphology of larvae and a key to species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Pteromalidae). The Canadian Entomologist 138: 87-90.

Cartar, Ralph. 2005. Short-term effects of experimental boreal forest logging disturbance on bumble bees, bumble bee-pollinated flowers and the bee-flower match. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 1895-1907.

Lindo, Zoe, and Suzanne Visser. 2004. Forest floor microarthropod aundance and oribatid mite (Acari: Orbatida) composition following partial and clear-cut harvesting in the mixedwood boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34:998-1006.

Jacobs, Joshua. 2004. Saproxylic beetle assemblages in the boreal mixedwood of Alberta: succession, wildfire and variable retention forestry. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 124 pp.

Work, Timothy, David P. Shorthouse, John R. Spence, W. Jan. A. Volney, and David Langor. 2004. Stand composition and structure of the boreal mixedwood and epigaeic arthropods of the Ecosystem Management Emulation Natural Disturbance (EMEND) landbase in northwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 417-430.

Spence, John, R. Cartar, M. Reid, D.W. Langor, and W.J.A. Volney. 2003. Dynamics of arthropod assemblages in forests managed to emulate natural disturbance (BUGS). Sustainable Forest Management Network Final Project Report 2003-2.

Lindo, Zoe. 2003. Forest floor properties, nutrient cycling processes, and microarthropod populations in conifer and deciduous stands of the mixed-wood boreal forest following partial and clear-cut harvesting. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Calgary.

Lindo, Zoe, and Suzanne Visser. 2003. Microbial biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization, and mesofauna in boreal conifer and deciduous forest floors following partial and clear-cut harvesting. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 1610-1620.

Morneau, Louis. 2002. Partial cutting impacts on moths and lepidopteran defoliators in a boreal mixedwood forest of Alberta. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 138 pp.

Park, Jane. 2002. The Effects Of Resource Distribution And Spatial Scale On The Distribution Of Two Species Of Bark Beetle: Polygraphus rufipennis (Kirby) And Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Calgary. 104 pp.

Wesley, Julia. 2002. The impacts of variable retention harvesting on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) and canopy-dwelling Lepidopteran parasitoids in the boreal forest. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 132 pp.

Aspen Regeneration

Gradowski, Tomasz, Victor J. Lieffers, Simon M. Landhausser, Derek Sidders, Jan Volney, John R. Spence. 2010. Regeneration of Populus nine years after variable retention harvest in boreal mixedwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 383–389.

Avian Diversity

Harrison, Bruce, F.K.A. Schmiegelow and R. Naidoo. 2005. Stand-level response of breeding forest songbirds to multiple levels of partial-cut harvest in four boreal forest types. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35: 1553-1567.

Harrison, Bruce. 2002. Stand-level response of boreal forest songbirds to experimental partial-cut harvest in northwestern Alberta. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 116 pp.

Biodiversity

Brett Bain Bodeux. 2012. Impacts of aggregated retention harvesting on the diversity patterns of nocturnal moth species assemblages in the mixedwood boreal forest of northwestern Alberta. University of Alberta.

Caners, Richard, Ellen Macdonald, René Belland. 2010. Bryophyte conservation in the managed boreal mixedwood mosaic. SFM Network Research Note Series No. 63.

Richard Theodore Caners. 2010. Conservation and ecology of bryophytes in partially harvested boreal mixed-wood forests of west-central Canada. University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources.

Pueyo, S., He, F. and Zillio, T.. 2007. The maximum entropy formalism and the idiosyncratic theory of biodiversity. Ecology Letters 10:1017?1028.

Work, Timothy, John Spence, W. Jan A. Volney, Luigi Morgantini, and John Innes. 2003. Integrating biodiversity and forestry practices in Western Canada. Forestry Chronicle. 79(5): 906-916.

Spence, John. 2001. The new boreal forestry: adjusting timber management to accommodate biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evoloution. 16: 591-593.

EMEND General Overviews

Abele, Suzanne E., S. Ellen Macdonald, and John R. Spence. 2014. Cover type, environmental characteristics, and conservation of terrestrial gastropod diversity in boreal mixedwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 44: 36-44.

Irma Diaz-Aguilar, Sylvie A. Quideau, Heather C. Proctor, Barbara E. Kishchuk, John R. Spence. 2013. Influence of stand composition on predatory mite (Mesostigmata) assemblages from the forest floor in western Canadian boreal mixedwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management (in press).

Spence, John, W. Jan A. Volney, Derek Sidders, Steve Luchkow, Tim Vinge, Frank Oberle, Dan Gilmore, J. P. Bielech, Pat Wearmouth, Jason Edwards, Peter Bothwell, David Shorthouse, Dan Wilkinson, and Suzanne Brais. 2002. The EMEND Experience. In T Veeman et al. (Eds), Advances in Forest Management: From Knowledge to Practice, Proceedings of SFMN Conference, 13-15 Nov, Edmonton, Alberta. SFMN Network, Edmonton, Canada. pp. 40-44.

Jamieson, Scott. 2001. Making EMENDS. Canadian Forest Industries, November/December 2001 issue. pp. 14-20.

Volney, W. Jan A., J.R. Spence, Mike G. Weber, David W. Langor, Ken I. Mallet, J. Derek Johnson, Ivor K. Edwards, Graham R. Hillman, and Barb E. Kishchuk. 1999. Assessing components of ecosystem integrity in the EMEND experiment. In Veeman et al., eds, Science and Practice: Sustaining the Boreal Forest, SFM Network,14-17 February, 1999. Edmonton, AB. pp. 244-249.

Spence, John, and W. Jan A. Volney. 1999. EMEND - Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance. Sustainable Forest Management Network Project Report 1999-14. 17pp.

Spence, John, W. Jan A. Volney, Victor J. Lieffers, Mike G. Weber, Steve A. Luchkow, and Tim W. Vinge. 1999. The Alberta EMEND Project: recipe and cook's argument. In Veeman et al., eds, Science and Practice: Sustaining the Boreal Forest, SFM Network,14-17 February, 1999. Edmonton, AB. pp. 583-590.

Fire Science

Lara Almuedo, Pedro. 2003. Surface fuel characteristics in boreal forests of north-western Alberta: Practical considerations for prescribed burn implementation. MFC Thesis Research Paper, University of Toronto. 49 pp.

Harvesting Economics

Phillips, Eric. 2004. Harvesting to emulate natural disturbance: EMEND harvesting costs and productivity. FERIC Advantage 5(36). 22 pp.

Invertebrate Diversity

Suzanne E Abele. 2010. Gastropod diversity in the boreal mixedwood forest of northern Alberta - variation among forest types and response to partial harvesting. MSc. Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta.

Mycology

Lance W. Lazaruk, S. Ellen Macdonald, and Gavin Kernaghan. 2008. The effect of mechanical site preparation on ectomycorrhizae of planted white spruce seedlings in conifer-dominated boreal mixedwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38: 2072-2079.

Lazaruk, Lance W., Gavin Kernaghan, S. Ellen Macdonald, and Damase Khasa. 2005. Effects of partial cutting on the ectomycorrhizae of Picea glauca forests in northwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35: 1442-1454.

Cuthbertson, Lisa. 2005. The ecology of Armillaria sinapina in mixedwood forests of north-western, Alberta, Canada. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta. 156 pp.

Lazaruk, Lance, W. 2002. The impact of harvesting practices on the biodiversity of Picea glauca ectomycorrhizae. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta, 2002.

Pattern and Processes

Colin Bergeron. 2012. Fire history, landscape biodiversity and indicators for sustainable management of the boreal mixedwood forest. Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta.

Gray, Laura and Fangliang He. 2009. Spatial point-pattern analysis for detecting density-dependent competition in a boreal chronosequence of Alberta. Forest Ecology and Management 259:98-106.

He, F. and Tang, D.L.. 2008. Estimating the niche preemption parameter of the geometric series. Acta Oecologica 33:105?107.

Gray, Laura Kelsey. 2008. Spatial patterning of tree distributions and density-dependent competition in a boreal forest of Alberta. MSc. Thesis. 2008. University of Alberta. 86 pp.

Kembel, Steven W. & Dale, Mark R.T.. 2006. Within-stand spatial structure and relation of boreal canopy and understorey vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 783-790.

Frey, Brent, Victor J. Lieffers, Alison D. Munson, and Peter V. Blenis. 2003. The influence of partial harvesting and forest floor disturbance on nutrient availability and understory vegetation in boreal mixedwoods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 1180-1188.

Macdonald, S. Ellen, L. Cuthbertson, B. Frey, T. Fenniak, L. Lazaruk, S. Kembell, S. Mills, V. Lieffers, M. Dale, K. Mallett, A. Munson, and D. Vitt. 2001. Pattern and process in the boreal forest understory. SFM Network Final Project Report 2001-14. pp 37.

Kembel, Steve W.. 2001. Small-scale spatial patterns of boreal mixedwood forest vegetation. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 87pp.

Productivity

Kevin Solarik, Vic Lieffers, and Jan Volney. 2012. EMEND Insights #1 - The intersect between retention harvests and natural regeneration. EMEND Insights. Department of Renewable Resources - University of Alberta.

Kevin A. Solarik, W. Jan A. Volney, Victor J. Lieffers, John R. Spence and Andreas Hamann. 2012. Factors affecting white spruce and aspen survival after partial harvest. Journal of Applied Ecology.

Kevin Andrew Solarik. 2010. Variable Retention Harvesting: Mortality of Residual Trees and Natural Regeneration of White Spruce. Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta.

Amiro, Brian. 2001. Paired-tower measurements of carbon and energy fluxes following disturbance in the boreal forest. Global Change Biology 7: 253-268.

Silviculture

Lieffers, Victor, Derek Sidders, Tomasz Gradowski, Simon Landhäusser, Brent Frey, Alison Munson, Tim Keddy, Jan Volney, John Spence, and Peter Blenis. 2009. Spruce and aspen regeneration following variable retention harvests at EMEND. Sustainable Forest Management Network Research Note Series No. 41.

Gradowski, Tomasz, Derek Sidders, Tim Keddy, Victor J. Lieffers, Simon M. Landha¨usser. 2008. Effects of overstory retention and site preparation on growth of planted white spruce seedlings in deciduous and coniferous dominated boreal plains mixedwoods. Forest Ecology and Management.

Greenway, Ken J. and Amar Varma. 2001. EMEND Deciduous Regeneration Study Annual Progress Report. Internal progress report.

Small Mammals

Patriquin, Krista, and Robert Barclay. 2003. Foraging by bats in cleared, thinned and unharvested boreal forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 646-657.

Patriquin, Krista, Laureen K. Hogberg, Bryan J. Chruszcz, and Robert M. R. Barclay. 2003. The influence of habitat structure on the ability to detect ultrasound using bat detectors. Wildlife Society Bulletin 2003, 31(2): 475-48.

Hogberg, Laureen, Krista Patriquin, and Robert Barclay. 2002. Use by bats of patches of residual trees in logged areas of the boreal forest. American Midland Naturalist 148: 282-288.

Patriquin, Krista. 2001. Ecology of a bat community in harvested boreal forest in northwestern Alberta. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. 106 pp.

Soils and Nutrient Cycling

Barbara E. Kishchuk, Sylvie Quideau, Yonghe Wang, and Cindy Prescott. 2014. Long-term soil response to variable-retention harvesting in the EMEND (Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance) experiment, northwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Soil Science.

Barbara Kishchuk, Kirsten Hannam, Lucie Jerabkova, Mathew Swallow, Sylvie Quideau and Cindy Prescott. 2010. Influence of cover type and variable retention harvesting on soils in the EMEND Experiment. SFM Network Research Note Series No. 70.

Swallow, M, S.A. Quideau, M.D. MacKenzie, B.E. Kishchuk. 2009. Microbial community structure and function: The effect of silvicultural burning and topographic variability in northern Alberta. Swallow, M., et al., Microbial community structure and function: The effect of silvicultural burning and topographic variability in northern Alberta, Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2009), In Press loi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.01.014.

Jerabkova, L., K.D. Hannam, C.E. Prescott, B. Kishchuk, S. Quideau. 2007. Effect of timber harvesting on the composition and function of soil microbial communities in the boreal mixedwoods, Alberta, Canada. Jerabkova, L., Hannam, K.D., Prescott, C.E., Kishchuk, B., Quideau, S. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Seminar Life in Soil (Zivot v pude). 23 rd-24th January 2007, Brno, Czech Republic..

Jerabkova, Lucie and Cindy E. Prescott. 2007. Post-harvest soil nitrate dynamics in aspen- and spruce-dominated boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management 242: 209?216.

Hannam, K.D., S.A. Quideau, B.E. Kishchuk. 2007. The microbial communities of aspen and spruce forest floors are resistant to changes in litter inputs and microclimate. Applied Soil Ecology 35 (2007) 635 - 647.

Jerabkova, Lucie. 2006. Effect of variable retention harvesting and stand type on soil nitrogen availability in boreal mixedwood forests. PhD. Thesis, University of British Columbia.

Jerabkova, Lucie, Cindy E. Prescott, and Barbara E. Kishchuk. 2006. Effect of variable-retention harvesting on soil nitrogen availability in boreal mixedwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 3029-3038.

Hannam, Kirsten, S.A. Quideau and B.E. Kishchuk. 2006. Forest floor microbial communities in relation to stand composition and timber harvesting in northern Alberta. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38: 2565 - 2575.

Jerabkova, Lucie, Cindy E. Prescott, and Barbara E. Kishchuk. 2006. Nitrogen availability in soil and forest floor of contrasting types of boreal mixedwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 112-122.

Hannam, Kirsten D.. 2006. The organic matter and microbial community composition of forest floors from boreal mixedwood stands in northern Alberta. PhD. Thesis, University of Alberta.

Hannam, Kirsten, S.A. Quideau, B.E. Kishchuk, S.-W. Oh, and R.E. Wasylishen. 2005. Forest-floor chemical properties are altered by clear-cutting in boreal mixedwood forest stands dominated by trembling aspen and white spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35: 2457-2468.

Hannam, Kirsten, S.A. Quideau, S-W. Oh, B.E. Kishchuk, and R.E. Wasylishen. 2004. Forest floor composition in aspen- and spruce-dominated stands of the boreal mixedwood forest. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: 1735-1743.

Kishchuk, Barbara. 2004. Soils of the Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance (EMEND) experimental area, northerwestern Alberta. Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Serv., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, Alberta. Inf. Rep. NOR-X-397. February 2004.

Tree Genetics

Rajora, Om, I.K. Mann and Y.-X. Shi. 2005. Genetic diversity and population structure of boreal white spruce (Picea glauca) in pristine conifer-dominated and mixedwood forest stands. Canadian Journal of Botany 83: 1096-1105.

Vegetation

Richard T. Caners, S. Ellen Macdonald, and Rene J. Belland. 2010. Responses of boreal epiphytic bryophytes to different levels of partial canopy harvest. Botany 88: 315-328.

Pyper, Matthew and Ellen Macdonald. 2010. The understory story: variable retention impacts on vascular plants at EMEND. SFM Network Research Note Series No. 65.

Virginia Chavez and S. Ellen Macdonald. 2010. Understory plant diversity and composition in boreal mixedwood forests. SFM Network Research Note Series No. 72.

V. Chavez and S.E. Macdonald. 2010. Understory species interactions in mature boreal mixedwood forests. Botany 88: 912 - 922.

Caners, R.T., S.E. Macdonald, R.J. Belland. 2009. Recolonization potential of bryophyte diaspore banks in harvested boreal mixed-wood forest. Plant Ecology, 204: 55-68.

Craig, A. and S. Ellen Macdonald. 2009. Threshold effects of variable retention harvesting on understory plant communities in the boreal mixedwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 2619-2627.

Craig, Ashley. 2008. The effects of variable retention harvesting on understory vegetation in the mixedwood boreal forest in northwestern Alberta. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta. 130 pp.

Macdonald, S.E. and T.E. Fenniak. 2007. Understory plant communities of boreal mixedwood forests in western Canada: natural patterns and response to variable-retention harvesting. Forest Ecology and Management 242: 34-48..

Mills, Suzanne E., and S.E. Macdonald. 2005. Factors influencing bryophyte assemblage at different scales in the western Canadian boreal forest. The Bryologist 108: 86-101.

Mills, Suzanne E., and S.E. Macdonald. 2004. Predictors of moss and liverwort species diversity of microsites in conifer-dominated boreal forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 15: 189-198.

Mills, Suzanne E.. 2001. Bryophyte species composition and diversity at two scales in conifer-dominated boreal forest stands. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 124 pp.

Frey, Brent. 2001. Impacts of forest floor disturbance on vegetation and nutrient dynamics in clear cut and partial cut stands. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 86 pp.

Fenniak, Treena. 2001. Response of environmental variables and understory vegetation to various intensities of harvesting at the EMEND site, northern Alberta. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Alberta. 117 pp.

White Spruce Regeneration

Solarik, Kevin A. Victor J. Lieffers, W. Jan A. Volney, Rick Pelletier, and John R. Spence. 2010. Seed tree density, variable retention, and stand composition influence recruitment of white spruce in boreal mixedwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 1821-1832.

Gilmore, Dan. W. and C.A. Berger. 2004. White spruce basal area as a predictor of seed rain during an exceptional seed year in northwestern Alberta. Northwest Science 78(1): 75-78.

Berger, Carrie, and D.W. Gilmore. 2003. Germination and survival of spruce seedlings following fire in northwestern Alberta. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 20(1): 45-47.

Berger, Carrie. 2002. White Spruce seed rain and germination in northwestern Alberta, Canada. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Minnesota. 73 pp.